Home' Asia Pacific Defence Reporter : APDR March 2015 Contents Asia Pacific Defence Reporter MAR 2015 15
spectrum; the future impact of unmanned and
autonomous systems; and the coming of age of directed
One of the guiding principles for IO is the need to
keep a country’s own population informed. If there
is a vacuum of information then someone, possibly
an adversary, will fill it! Being proactive is key with
continuous media follow up. For domestic consumption
messages need to be targeted to a broad audience
and despatched via media briefings, press releases,
interviews and items in all media.
Psychological IO with an adversary’s military
personnel can aim to change behaviour through
appeals to reason and emotion – the so-called ‘Heads
and Hearts’ campaign. Such operations can be at
both strategic and tactical levels. This reinforces our
coalition’s military actions like parades, showing of force
or actual use of force.
‘White’ psychological IO focuses on positive effects
of the chance to provide improvements to an individual
adversary’s situation based on facts. Tactical IO strives
for immediate influence through use of loudspeakers,
dropping flyers, or even use of massive kinetic weapon
explosions or other forms of force. As a ‘white’ technique
it could even use the fear of death emotion to seek relief
At a strategic level it strives for permanent change
by being educational and persuasive. It could involve
appeals to family, patriotism, religion, insecurity, etc. and
offers a solution to these concerns.
Use of these IO techniques is not easy as they
require long term planning and often are confronted by
impatient commanders who want fast results. Cultural
differences and local traditions need to be understood,
as well as being cautious about potential contradictions
between the message and reality.
Alternative ‘Black’ techniques seek to intimidate,
mislead or force change through use of fear and lies,
describing an approaching situation as a fearful and
Cyber warfare is a vehicle to conduct IO, as well as
interfering with the workings and data integrity in an
adversary’s information system networks. The ADF and
its partners recognise that this is a part of future warfare
and are actively planning both offensive and defensive
Key elements of secure communications include
user authentication, data integrity, non-repudiation of
messages, only authorised users on the communications
link can access the data in transit, and provision of an
access audit trail. There is also a concomitant need for
secure storage of filed information.
Defence, within its own organisation and with its
Australian intelligence and security partners, as well as
international coalition partners, needs to communicate
at a range of security classification levels and data
Information is key to the conduct of military operations,
becoming even more critical as the concept of Network
Centric Operations becomes reality within the ADF.
The network is an enabler for leaders and their forces
to accomplish missions. Secure communications are
essential to deliver the right information in the right
time frame and form to enable effective action without
the adversary gaining advance warning of the ADF’s
What was formerly known as the Defence Information
Environment is now known as the Single Information
Environment (SIE) which encompasses the computing
and communications infrastructure of Defence along
with the people, skills, processes, documentation and
management systems that deliver that infrastructure. The
creation and maintenance of secure communications
requires all these elements to come together effectively.
Military users of networks need to ensure the correct
security classification is attached to anything they send.
The methods of transmission chosen must support this
MILITARY SECURITY CLASSIFICATIONS
Military security levels range from Australian Eyes only,
through Top Secret, Secret, Confidential, Restricted and
Unclassified. In addition there may be Special Access
Only or other compartmentalised classifications.
Australian Eyes Only is self-evident for information
which could do positive harm to the country’s internal
governance, or external relations with other countries,
if it is revealed. In 2011 an Australian Army officer was
court-martialled for revealing AUSTEO information to a
Generally speaking the TOP SECRET classification
is reserved for information which cause serious damage
to national security through unauthorised disclosure.
Examples could include cryptographic keys and
communications security methods; advanced and as
yet unrevealed scientific or technological developments
and their military applications; some elements of military
preparedness; current status and disposition of key
weapons systems and platforms, especially if they have
moved forward and are poised to strike; and matters
affecting sensitive foreign relationships.
The SECRET classification relates to information with
the potential to damage national security. This could
be through disruption of relationships with friendly or
not so friendly countries; military plans in relation to
different intervention or defensive scenarios; geospatial
and signals intelligence about other countries; or the
readiness and likely performance of Australian military
units and their weapon systems.
CONFIDENTIAL generally means information which
could compromise individuals, military units, or plans
through unauthorised disclosure. This could include
locations, preparedness and dispositions of military
units which could offer a first response to a situation
requiring armed intervention.
No. 52 Joint Terminal Attack Controller Sergeant Borg uses multiple radio nets to
coordinate close air support at High Range during Exercise Black Dagger 01/14.
5/03/2015 4:28 pm
Links Archive APDR 02 2015 APDR April 2015 Navigation Previous Page Next Page