Home' Asia Pacific Defence Reporter : APDR 02 2015 Contents 52 Asia Pacific Defence Reporter FEB 2015
Atlas Elektronik will supply the sonar system which
will include an ‘Enhanced Flank Array Sonar’ array,
the Australian derived ‘Intercept Detection and
Ranging System’, a mine avoidance sonar and a
new conformal array replacing the standard CSU-90
cylindrical array. The radar type is undefined at this
point in time, as are the other elements of the combat
system. Public domain information advises that there
will be two optronics masts, an ESM mast, a radar
mast, a multi-purpose mast, two communications
masts and a snorkel mast. A Gabler Maschinenbau’s
modular mast system will be utilised.
The countermeasure launcher will likely be the
Atlas Electronik/L-3 Elac Nautic TAU 2000 system
with TKMS CIRCE launchers.
In addition to the Control Room, the submarine
has a multi-purpose room that can be set up as a sick
bay, conference room, additional accommodation or
specialist EW compartment.
The boat also has a 2.5 metre diameter Vertical
Multi-Purpose Lock to serve as a 24 mine magazine,
an ‘AUV garage’, a 20 man diver lock, a cruise
missile vertical launch tube or as additional fuel
storage for increasing the submarine’s range. The
submarine can also mount large Special Forces
stowage lockers or swimmer delivery vehicles on
the after casing.
The boat has six torpedo tubes and is capable of
embarking up to 18 full-length weapons, although it
is believed the boat can be configured (dynamically)
to carry more. It will be capable of firing both
DM2A4 and Mk 48 torpedoes, Harpoon sub-surface
to surface missiles, IDAS sub-surface to air missiles
and mines. The discharge system is a water ram.
Little is known about the Japanese solution on
offer to Australia. We know that Australian interests
do not lie with the Soryu, rather an enhanced
next generation Japanese submarine designed with
Australian input. None the less, Soryu is our starting
The Soryu is evolved from 100 years of submarine
design and build experience. Six of the more than
10 planned Soryu’s are serving in the JMSDF. Each
boat has a price of AUD $550 million - $650 million.
The boat is 84 metres long, 9.1 metres in diameter
and displaces 4,200 tonnes when dived. The hull is
designed to take the boat to 300+ metres (Janes
reports that the boat is made of high tensile steel
and can dive to 650 metres). Its after planes have a
The submarine’s complement is 65, something
that could be problematic for the RAN.
Quoted range for the boat is 6,100 NM range,
most likely due to limited diesel-oil storage capacity.
It is fitted with two 12V 25/25 SB Kawasaki diesel
generators, designed in conjunction with MAN,
charging GS Yuasa standard lead-acid batteries
that power a 5.9 MW Fuji Electrics main motor
driving a seven bladed Nakashima propeller. It has
four Kawasaki Kockums V4-275 Sirling engines for
AIP. The propulsion chain would need to change
significantly to meet Australian requirements. As
retired submarine Rear Admiral Peter Brigg advised
the Senate, the two diesels on the Soryu make for
an ‘under-power’ situation when limit snorting time
is desired, and the overall range of the submarines
is well short of the Collins submarines the RAN
is seeking to replace. The Japanese have also
announced they are removing the Stirling engines
on their next generation submarine and replacing
the capability with Lithium Ion batteries. Prima facie,
this is odd. Li Ion batteries are a good option for
high speed transits and the rare sprints conducted
by conventional boats due to their circa 3 to 1
advantage over lead acid cells at high discharge
rates, but they only have a 1.5 to 1 advantage
at the lower discharge rates. An exclusive Li Ion
solution will not give the same in-area advantage
to a submarine commander as AIP would. Perhaps
there are AIP licencing issues with the Swedes or
the Japanese are simply willing to trade off capability
to reduce submarine complexity?
The Soryu is coated with anechoic materials to
minimise its own noise and reduce the submarine’s
target strength in active sonar environments.
The combat system is largely indigenous. The
Combat Management System is from Hitachi
Defense Systems, the sonars from both Shizuoka OKI
Electric Company and Hitachi Defense Systems, the
ESM suite is locally produced and the periscopes
are supplied by Thales UK. But is appears from a
recently released Raytheon paper that the intent of a
joint Australian-Japanese submarine program would
be to integrate the AN/BYG-1 combat system.
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Manufacturing Corporation
supply the countermeasure launch system with
Mitsubishi Research Institute supplying the
Soryu can carry a combination of up to 30 Type
89 torpedoes and Harpoon missiles for launching
through its six torpedo tubes. Mines can also be laid
through the tubes.
So, with each of the candidate submarines
introduced, it is perhaps useful to look at some
considerations that should be given to the choices
from an RAN perspective?
First and foremost, each of the submarines are
concept designs, which entails risk for the RAN,
although each supplier will have a slightly different
risk mitigation story. All will rightly claim experience
in the game.
DCNS will boast that it has large boats in the
water, knowing that the Germans cannot make the
same claim, and will try to leverage the similarities
between the nuclear and conventional Barracuda
variants. But the Barracuda is not yet in the water
and, whilst there will be many similarities, there will
also be some very significant differences, particularly
in the area of propulsion systems and the fuel tanks
necessary to replace the energy store in the reactor
The Germans will try to pass off the concept
design risk by showing off their impressive build
track record of more than 160 post World War
II submarines. They will argue they are NATOs
conventional submarine supplier of choice (Germany,
Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Turkey all use
their submarines) and have much broader worldwide
success in a range of other markets, with recent
export success in Egypt, Israel, South Korea and
Singapore as examples. When pushed on the fact
The Type 216 is an up-sized Type 214 class submarine designed with the
Australian SEA 1000 requirement in mind.
Submarine weapon compatibility with those that Australia prefers (the
Mk 48 torpedo, the Harpoon and the Tomahawk cruise missiles) will be a
factor in the competition.
All components are designed to produce minimal noise with double elastic
mounting and sound dampening modules used extensively.
29/01/15 7:27 PM
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